Ball Speed is a measurement in MPH of the ball’s initial velocity, once a golfer hits the ball, which is measured at impact by a device known as a “Launch Monitor.” Ball speed shows how much energy the golfer is transferring to the golf ball. Ball speed, along with the variables of launch angle (take-off trajectory), and spin rates (backspin and sidespin in RPM) determine the distance, trajectory, and flight characteristics of the golf ball.

Blocked Practice refers to a practice sequence in which individuals repeatedly rehearse the same task. It is also referred to as low contextual interference.

Cardiovascular Endurance refers to the general physical fitness of the athlete. More specifically, it is the body’s ability to deliver oxygen and nutrients to tissues and to remove wastes over a sustained period. The heart, lungs, blood, and muscles must all be working optimally for maximal cardiovascular endurance. In golf, cardiovascular endurance is important for keeping high energy levels during play, having the ability to play and practice for long periods of time without fatigue, and for overall health.

Coaching Development Model (CDM) is the framework which defines the structure of the coaching program that is put in place to support and train coaches to service participants in the sport of golf.
Chronological Age refers to the number of years and days elapsed since birth. Growth, development, and maturation operate in a time framework; that is, the child’s chronological age. Children of the same chronological age can differ by several years in their level of biological maturation. The integrated nature of growth and maturation is achieved by the interaction of genes, hormones, nutrients, and the physical and psychosocial environments in which the individual lives. This complex interaction regulates the child’s growth, neuromuscular maturation, sexual maturation, and general physical metamorphosis during the first two decades of life.

Core Golfing Population refers to the group of golfers that play eight or more rounds per year.

Developmental Age refers to the interrelationship between growth and maturation in relation to the passage of time. The concept of development also includes the social, emotional, intellectual, and motor realms of the child. Developmental age reflects the true overall situation of an individual’s growth and maturation and may be thought of as an index of development stated as the age in years of an individual and determined by specified standardized measurements such as motor and mental tests and body measurements.
The terms growth and maturation are often used together and sometimes synonymously. However, each refers to specific biological activities. Growth refers to observable, step-by-step, measurable changes in body size such as height, weight, and percentage of body fat. Maturation refers to qualitative system changes, both structural and functional in nature, in the organism’s progress toward maturity; for example, the change of cartilage to bone in the skeleton.

Emotional Regulation is the acceptance and processing of feelings. The ability to understand and effectively manage basic human emotions (e.g., fear, anger, guilt/embarrassment, surprise, sadness, happiness).

Golf Canada – a member-based organization – is the governing body of golf in Canada, representing more than 322,000 members at 1,500 clubs across the country. Recognized by Sport Canada as the National Sport Organization (NSO) for golf in this country, Golf Canada is responsible for promoting participation in and a passion for the game of golf in Canada. Further information is available at
Greens in Regulation (GIR) occurs when a golfer advances his/her ball onto a putting green in one stroke on a par-3 hole, one or two strokes on a par 4, or two or three strokes on a par 5 hole. Any part of the player’s ball must be on the green for a player to record a GIR (i.e. a ball on the fringe doesn’t count as a GIR). GIR’s are the most reliable golf statistic for performance. A recent MIT study shows that a players score is correlated to the equation: Score = 95-2(GIR). Therefore a player who hits 10 GIR in a round is likely to shoot a score of 75 – 95-2(10). This is reliable about 17.5 times out of 20.

National Coaching Certification Program (NCCP) is a coach training and certification program for 65 different sports and is offered in both official languages across Canada. The NCCP is the recognized national standard for coach training and certification in Canada. As part of the program, all coaches are trained in ethical decision-making and sport safety.

PGA of Canada is a membership based non-profit organization representing over 3,700 PGA professionals and tournament professionals across Canada. The Association was founded in 1911, making it the oldest professional golf association in North America. Further information is available at

Peak Height Velocity (PHV) is the maximum rate of growth in stature during the adolescent growth spurt. The age of maximum velocity of growth is called the age at PHV. The rate of change in height varies through specific stages of growth and allows for height cues or rates of growth changes to be used as potential indicators of appropriate activity programming and evaluation content for developing athletes/players. Onset of PHV (Peak Height Velocity) is the beginning of the growth spurt.

Periodization is a time management and planning technique that provides the framework for arranging the complex array of training processes into a logical and observationally and scientifically based schedule to bring about optimal improvements in performance. Periodization sequences the training components into weeks, days, and sessions. Periodization is situation specific depending upon priorities and the time available to bring about the required training and competition improvement. In the LTPD context, periodization connects the stage the athlete is in to the suggested requirements of that stage.

Physical Literacy refers to the mastering of fundamental motor skills and fundamental sport skills.

Physical Work Capacity is the maximum amount of work a person can perform. It is usually related to a specific heart rate and used to be a measure of physical fitness.

Quality Ball Strike is to be engaged with full concentration in a strike specifically designed to
improve feel, skill and/or golf score. This changes as one progresses through the stages as accuracy and precision of the strike becomes more critical.

Random Practice is a practice sequence in which individuals perform a number of different tasks, in no particular order, thus avoiding or minimizing consecutive repetitions of any single task. It is also referred to as high contextual interference.

Rotational Velocity is a measurement of performance within the golf swing – often used to assess the athlete’s hip rotation speed through impact.

Sequencing refers to the specific planning and placement of training components into an athlete’s schedule. The term is often used in correspondence with periodization.

Shot by Shot is an industry leading statistically based online golf performance analysis program. It is the most accurate and advanced game analysis program available. Traditional statistics (fairways, greens-in-regulation, sand saves and # of putts) provide little insight and can be misleading when used as indicators of performance. Golfers enter their on-course performance data by logging onto the website following play. Shot By Shot provides golfers with instantaneous feedback. It enables golfers to accurately determine the relative strengths and weaknesses of all facets of their games versus their target handicap group. This information allows players and their coaches to be aware of their skill levels and performance trends. Shot By Shot is an excellent diagnostic tool and game improvement motivator.

Trainability refers to the genetic endowment of athletes as they respond individually to specific stimuli and adapt to it accordingly. Malina and Bouchard (1991) defined trainability as the responsiveness of developing individuals at different stages of growth and maturation to the training stimulus.

The United States Golf Association (USGA) is the governing body of golf in the US, its territories and Mexico since 1894. It is a not-for-profit association run by golfers for the benefit of golfers.

Golf Canada
1333 Dorval Dr, Suite 1
Oakville, Ontario, L6M 4X7

PGA of Canada
13450 Dublin Line
Acton, Ontario, L7J 2W7